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Explore the plans

  • Infrastructure
  • Liveability
  • Productivity
  • Sustainability
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A city supported by infrastructureInfrastructure
A collaborative cityCollaboration
A city for peoplePeople
Housing the cityHousing
A city of great placesPlaces
A well connected cityConnected
Jobs and skills for the cityJobs
A city in its landscapeLandscape
An efficient cityEfficiency
A resilient cityResilience
  1. Hajkowicz et al 2016, 'A megatrend is a deep-set trajectory of change that occurs at the intersection of numerous trends with tighter and more specific temporal, spatial and typological definition' Tomorrow's Digitally Enabled Workforce pp 7.
  2. City Futures Research Centre 2013, Implementing metropolitan planning strategies: taking into account local housing demand, Technical Report, City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Sydney.
  3. World Health Organisation 2007, Global Age-Friendly Cities: A Guide.
  4. NSW Department of Planning and Environment, State Environmental Planning Policy No 65 - Design Quality of Residential Apartment Development (SEPP 65), NSW Government, Sydney.
  5. Department of Social Services 2010, National Dialogue on Universal Housing Design - Strategic Plan, Australian Government, Canberra.
  6. Ekelund et. al. 2015 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ajcn.114.100065.
  7. PricewaterhouseCoopers 2015, A smart move. Futureproofing Australia's workforce by growing skills in science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM), PwC, Sydney.
  8. NSW Government 2017, A fair go for first home buyers, NSW Government, Sydney.
  9. NSW Department of Planning and Environment 2017, Sydney Housing Supply Forecast 2016 - By District, NSW Government, Sydney.
  10. City Futures Research Centre 2013, Implementing metropolitan planning strategies: taking into account local housing demand, Technical Report, City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Sydney.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Committee for Sydney 2017, Adding to the dividend, ending the divide #3, Committee for Sydney, Sydney.
  13. PricewaterhouseCoopers 2017, A fixed abode: the opportunity for institutional investors to play a part in the improving private rental market, PwC, Sydney.
  14. Ibid.
  15. NSW Department of Family and Community Services Centre for Community Housing 2016-2017, Household Median Incomes, NSW Government, Sydney.
  16. IPSOS Public Affairs Survey commissioned by The Committee for Sydney in 2017. (unpublished)
  17. Transport for NSW, Future Transport 2056, Greater Sydney Services and Infrastructure Plan Customer, Outcome 3, https://future.transport.nsw.gov.au/react-feedback/greater-sydney-servi…, viewed 2017.
  18. Heritage Act 1977, Section 4, NSW,
  19. Transport Performance and Analytics 2016, https://www.transport.nsw.gov.au/performance-and-analytics, NSW Government, Sydney.
  20. Times Higher Education 2018, World University Rankings, https://www.timeshighereducation.com/world-universityrankings/2018/worl….
  21. Clark, Greg; Moonen, Tom 2017, Agglomeration, Centres and District Plans for the Greater Sydney Commission - Lesson Learnt from International Experience, https://gsc-public-1.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/Lessons_from_International_Experience_(Prof_Greg_Clark_and_Dr_Tim_Moonen).pdf.
  22. Infrastructure Australia 2017, Corridor Protection: Planning and investing for the long term, http://infrastructureaustralia.gov.au/policy-publications/publications/…, viewed 2018.
  23. Sydney Airport Corporation Limited; Sydney Airport Masterplan 2033, https://downloads.contentful.com/v228i5y5k0x4/4GorpbN4C4wAwACeOAiC22/21…); and NSW Ports 2015; Navigating the Future NSW Port's 30 Year Masterplan, https://www.nswports.com.au/assets/Uploads/Publications/NSWPorts-Master….
  24. Sydney Metro Airports, http://www.bankstownairport.com.au/, viewed July 2017.
  25. Tourism Research Australia 2013-14 Survey Results, news.com.au, 24 April 2015, www.news.com.au/travel/travelupdates/sydney-named-australias-top-touris…, viewed 2017.
  26. Sydney Airport Corporation Limited, www.sydneyairport.com.au/corporate/planning-and-projects/airspaceprotec…, viewed 2017.
  27. Colliers International 2017, NSW Office Market Report 2017, Colliers International, Sydney. (unpublished)
  28. Deloitte 2016, Westmead Innovation District: Building Western Sydney's job engine 2016-2036, Deloitte, Australia.
  29. Deloitte Access Economics 2013, Economic Impact of a Western Sydney Airport, Deloitte Access Economics Pty Ltd, Australia.
  30. Department of Education and Training 2017, Higher Education Statistics, http://highereducationstatistics.education.gov.au/, Australian Government, Canberra, viewed 2017.
  31. eHealth NSW, eHealth Strategy for NSW Health 2016-2026, http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/eHealth/Documents/eHealthStrategy-for-NSW-… NSW Health, Sydney, viewed 2017.
  32. Bass, Anne T and Bass, Robert M 2017 'Innovation Districts', Brookings,https://www.brookings.edu/innovation-districts/, viewed 2017.
  33. Transport for NSW 2016, Performance and Analytics, Transport for NSW, Sydney. 191 Greater Sydney Commission | Greater Sydney Region Plan 2018
  34. Deep End Services Pty Ltd 2016,Sydney Retail Demand and Supply Consultancy Stage 1, 2 and 3 reports, https://gsc-public-1.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/Sydney_retail_demand_…, Deep End Services Pty Ltd, viewed 2016.
  35. Ibid.
  36. Urbis 2016, Sydney Strategic Centres Barriers to Growth,https://gsc-public-1.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/sydney_strategic_cent… Hill PDA 2015, Strategic Centres Enabling Economic Growth and Productivity, https://gsc-public-.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fspublic/strategic_centres_enabl…, viewed 2016.
  37. Colliers International 2017, NSW Office Market Report 2017, Colliers International, Sydney. (unpublished)
  38. BIS Shrapnel 2015, Forecasting the Distribution of StandAlone Office Employment across Sydney to 2035, BIS Shrapnel, Sydney.
  39. National Australia Bank Group Economics 2016, 'NAB Online Retail Sales Index: In-depth report - December 2016', National Australia Bank, http://business.nab.com.au/nab-online-retail-sales-index-indepth-report…, National Australia Bank Group.
  40. Ibid.
  41. Greater Sydney Commission, 2017, Productivity Profile, https://gsc-public-1.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/2017_01_productivity_…, Greater Sydney Commission, Sydney.
  42. NSW Department of Planning and Environment, Employment Lands Development Monitor, http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/Research-and-Demography/Employment-Lands… NSW Government, Sydney, viewed 2017.
  43. Urbis 2016, Industrial Land Detailed Audit and Suitability Assessment (11 Case Studies), Urbis, Sydney.
  44. SGS Economics and Planning 2017, Sydney's Urban Services Land: Establishing a baseline provision, SGS Economics and Planning, Sydney.
  45. Australian Bureau of Statistics 2017, Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2015-16, Catalogue no: 7503.0, ABS, Canberra, Australia.
  46. Kinesis 2017, Exploring Net Zero Emissions for Greater Sydney, Kinesis, Sydney.
  47. 100 Resilient Cities network, http://www.100resilientcities.org/cities/entry/sydney#/-_/, viewed 2017.
  48. Infrastructure NSW 2017, Resilient Valley, Resilient Communities Hawkesbury-Nepean Valley Flood Risk Management Strategy, Infrastructure NSW, Sydney.
  49. Water NSW, http://www.waternsw.com.au/supply/Greater-Sydney/dams/prospect-dam, NSW Government, Sydney, viewed 2017.
  50. NSW Office of Environment and Heritage and The Environment Protection Authority Government 2017, Risk-based Framework for Considering Waterway Health Outcomes in Strategic Land-use Planning Decision, http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/research-and-publications/publication…, NSW Government, Sydney, viewed 2017.
  51. Sydney Water, http://www.sydneywater.com.au/SW/water-the-environment/how-we-manage-sy…, Sydney Water, viewed 2017.
  52. NSW Office of Environment and Heritage Government 2015, Technical Guidelines for Urban Green Cover in NSW, NSW Government, Sydney.
  53. AECOM 2017, Green Infrastructure: A vital step to Brilliant Australian Cities, http://www.aecom.com/content/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Green-Infrastru…, AECOM, Australia.
  54. NSW Department of Planning and Environment 2017, http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/Policy-and-Legislation/Exempt-and-Comply…, NSW Government, Sydney.
  55. Sutherland Shire Council, http://www.sutherlandshire.nsw.gov.au/Outdoors/Environment/Plants-and-B…, Sutherland Shire Council.
  56. Kinesis 2017,Exploring Net Zero Emissions for Greater Sydney, Kinesis, Sydney.
  57. NSW Department of Planning and Environment 2017, http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/News/2017/BASIX-energy-targets-to-change, NSW Government, Sydney.
  58. National Climate Change Adaption Research Facility, https://www.nccarf.edu.au/CoastAdapt-beta-release, viewed 2017.
  59. Commonwealth of Australia 2015, National Climate Resilience and Adaptation Strategy, Australian Government, Canberra.
  60. NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, The New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory Regional Climate Modelling Project (NARCliM), http://climatechange.environment.nsw.gov.au/Climate-projections-for-NSW….


In keeping with the NSW Government's commitment to encourage the availability of information, you are welcome to reproduce the material that appears in the Greater Sydney Region Plan, A Metropolis of Three Cities, for personal, in-house or non-commercial use without formal permission or charge. All other rights are reserved. If you wish to reproduce, alter, store or transmit material appearing in A Metropolis of Three Cities for any other purpose, a request for formal permission should be directed to info@gsc.nsw.gov.au or Greater Sydney Region Plan PO Box 257 Parramatta NSW 2124. Copyright in this material resides with and is owned by the State of New South Wales through the New South Wales Minister for Planning.


The information in this publication should not be solely relied upon in its separate form and must be read in conjunction with the full publication available at the NSW Planning Portal at https://www.planningportal.nsw.gov.au/ in accordance with the Environmental and Planning Assessment Act 1979. Whilst care and consideration has been taken in the creation of this document, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the State of New South Wales, its agents and employees, expressly disclaim and do not verify any information or representation, expressed or implied, in this publication and are not liable (whether by reason of negligence, error or omission, lack of care or otherwise) to any person for any damage, cost, loss or expense whatsoever which has occurred or may occur in relation to that person relying on the accuracy or completeness of a publication, or taking or not taking (as the case may be) action in respect of any information or representation referred to above in respect of the publication.

Amendment notes

Please note: There was a factual error in the current A Metropolis of Three Cities Plan with an incorrect reference made to the Commonwealth's approach to planning for noise around airports, known as Guideline A. The NSW Government has not adopted the Commonwealth approach and instead works within guidelines contained in the National Airports Safeguarding Framework. We worked with the Department of Planning and Environment to correct the error. For more information.

Greater Sydney Region Plan: A Metropolis of Three Cities

March 2018 © State of New South Wales

ISBN: 978-0-6482729-5-3